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5 Long-Term Impacts of Eating Disorders: Physical, Mental & Social Consequences

Written By: Holly Willis, PMHNP-BC (she/her/hers)
Nurse Practitioner, The Renfrew Center

What happens to the body and mind over time when struggling with an eating disorder? This is one of the most common questions we get and today we’re going to examine it.

What Are the Characteristics of Eating Disorders?

Eating disorders are complex mental health conditions that affect millions of individuals worldwide. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorder not only manifest in harmful symptoms towards food but also have profound long-term consequences on physical, emotional, and social well-being.

5 Long-Term Impacts of Eating Disorders

While eating disorders may initially seem to revolve around food and body image, their impacts extend far beyond the surface, affecting various aspects of the individual’s life. Let’s explore the biggest ones.

Impact #1: The Physical Toll

One of the most visible and immediate effects of eating disorders is their impact on physical health. Eating disorders impact every organ system in the body. Severe calorie restriction, purging, and binge eating can lead to malnutrition, electrolyte imbalances, gastrointestinal problems, and cardiovascular complications. Over time, these physical effects can become chronic and even life-threatening.

Individuals with anorexia nervosa often experience bone density loss, which can result in osteoporosis and fractures later in life. Moreover, the stress placed on the heart and other organs due to erratic eating patterns can increase the risk of heart disease and organ damage.

Impact #2: Psychological Strain

Beyond the physical ramifications, eating disorders take a severe toll on mental health. The distorted perception of body image, constant preoccupation with food and weight, and inadequate nutrition can lead to or exacerbate anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders.

Individuals may experience intense feelings of guilt, shame, and worthlessness, perpetuating a cycle of negative self-image and reinforcing eating disorder symptoms. The relentless pursuit of thinness or the inability to control eating can also lead to feelings of powerlessness and frustration, exacerbating the emotional distress associated with these disorders.

Impact #3: Social Isolation

Eating disorders can have profound social consequences, affecting relationships with family, friends, coworkers, and peers. The secretive nature of disordered eating symptoms may lead to withdrawal from social activities and isolation from loved ones. Moreover, the obsession with food and weight can strain interpersonal relationships, as individuals prioritize their eating disorder over meaningful connections. This social isolation can further exacerbate feelings of loneliness and alienation, creating a vicious cycle that reinforces disordered symptoms as a coping mechanism.

Impact #4: Daily Functioning

The pervasive nature of eating disorders can significantly impair an individual’s ability to function in daily life. The constant focus on food and body image may disrupt concentration, impairing academic or occupational performance. Additionally, the physical effects of malnutrition and fatigue can make it challenging to engage in everyday activities, leading to a decline in overall functioning. As the disorder progresses, individuals may become increasingly withdrawn and incapacitated, further hindering their ability to lead fulfilling lives.

Impact #5: Long-term Health Effects

While the immediate consequences of eating disorders are severe, the long-term health risks are equally concerning. Chronic malnutrition and erratic eating patterns can have lasting effects on the body, increasing the risk of developing serious medical conditions later in life.

For example, individuals with a history of eating disorders are at higher risk for developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, the psychological impact of these disorders can persist even after recovery, increasing the risk of relapse and ongoing mental health struggles.

Medical complications of eating disorders are typically reversible with full recovery. However, there are two medical complications that are not fully reversible: bone density loss and brain changes. Starvation causes bone density to decrease which increases the risk of bone fracture. Even in the absence of an injury, stress fractures can occur. The second complication that may not be fully reversible are the changes that occur in the brain. Brain atrophy, or wasting of brain tissue, is common in anorexia. Both white and grey matter of the brain are affected. While the brain returns to its normal size after recovery, research suggests that there are ongoing problems with cognition and alteration in smell and taste. Cognitive problems include issues with thinking, learning, and judgement. (1)

Treatment & Recovery

Despite the challenges posed by eating disorders, recovery is possible with proper treatment and support. A comprehensive approach that addresses both the physical and psychological aspects of the disorder is essential for long-term recovery. This may include nutritional counseling, therapy, medication, and support groups. Family involvement and social support networks also play a crucial role in the recovery process, providing encouragement and accountability.


Eating disorders have far-reaching consequences that extend beyond physical symptoms. They affect every aspect of an individual’s life from physical health to emotional well-being and social relationships. Recognizing the long-term impacts of these disorders is essential for early intervention and effective treatment. By addressing the underlying psychological factors and providing comprehensive support, individuals can overcome eating disorders and reclaim their health and happiness.


  1. Medical complications of anorexia nervosa (


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